Read This: The Pen is Mightier Than the Laptop

I love Educational Technology, but it has its limits. There are many places where technology can serve to enhance how students learn, but there are just as many where it can impair learning. A student in a dance class can benefit from watching a video recording of their performance, but they can just as easily hone their craft by watching themselves in a mirror. A humanities student can watch video interviews with primary sources, but usually will derive more benefit from looking the historical source in the eye and asking them questions. No matter where we look in our classrooms and educational practice, we will eventually find places where technology creates an impediment to learning.

I recently stumbled on “The Pen Is Mightier Than the Keyboard: Advantages of Longhand Over Laptop Note Taking,” a paper by Pam Mueller and Daniel M. Oppenheimer. Their findings show that when it comes to note taking technology may actually hinder a student’s ability to process and engage with new information.

“even when distractions are controlled for,
laptop use might impair performance by affecting the
manner and quality of in-class note taking.”

There sample size was small, only 65 students, but their methodology points to what may be an underlying truth: students will retain more information and perform better on tests when they take notes using pen and paper. They had the participants watch lectures and either take notes using laptops (not connected to the internet), or by hand. By removing internet from the equation they seem to have limited one of the most common sources of distraction when taking notes on a device, and thus they may have leveled the playing field to place where a meaningful comparison can take place. After completing their note taking, the students completed some thinking tasks before they were asked a series of questions that forced them to recall information from the lecture. Overall, students did better when they took longhand notes.

They found that when compared with computer notes, longhand notes:

  • contained fewer words
  • had less overlap with lecture (less verbatim transcription)
  • people who wrote more notes did better on the questions
  • people with less verbatim notes performed better on the questions

They found that “laptops may harm academic performance even when used as intended. Participants using laptops are more likely to take lengthier transcription-like notes with greater verbatim overlap with the lecture. Although taking more notes, thereby having more information, is beneficial, mindless transcription seems to offset the benefit of the increased content, at least when there is no opportunity for review. ” [emphasis is mine]

I highly recommend reading the paper (link above), and that you think twice before rushing students into taking notes using digital tools. Students need to learn note taking skills in general, because regardless of the tool they use, writing down the lecturer’s words is never a sound practice. Laptops and devices provide students with the ability to write at a far faster pace than pen and paper, but in so doing they create opportunities for students to use poor note taking practices. The authors close with a profound thought that I could not agree with more:

“synthesizing and summarizing content rather than verbatim transcription can serve as a desirable difficulty toward improved educational outcomes… laptop use in classrooms should be viewed with a healthy dose of caution; despite their growing popularity, laptops may be doing more harm in classrooms than good.”

As educators, we should use a similar litmus test whenever we turn to technological tools. We must consider the alternative to the tool we plan to use, and the tradeoffs of making the switch. If we honestly assess the value of the new tool versus the old, and take into considerations a serious list of benefits and costs, we may find that pen is indeed mightier.

Read This: It’s Complicated, by danah boyd

danah boyd really understands how teens interact with technology.

danah boyd really understands how teens interact with technology.

If you are a parent, teacher, or anyone who may come into contact with kids you need to read It’s Complicated by danah boyd (she leaves it lowercase intentionally). danah is a principal researcher at Microsoft, a professor at NYU, and one of the few voices of reason out there when it comes to kids and technology. She spent several years travelling the country and interviewing teens before writing this book. The aim of her research is to to see how teens are integrating  technology into their everyday lives, and how doing so shapes their interactions with the outside world.

Far too often you encounter reports about the dangers of the internet today. Many of the fears that are voiced – those regarding bullying, addiction, and online predators for instance – while serious, are far from the epidemics they are often described as. boyd is able to create numerous talking points regarding teens and the internet without resulting to such sensationalist tactics.

“Teens are passionate about finding their place in society. What is different as a result of social media is that teens’ perennial desire for social connection and autonomy is now being expressed in networked publics.” (8)

One of the first concepts boyd introduces is that of the networked public. She essentially argues that the places where teens socialize change over time as technology and society introduce or force new ways for them to network. When she was teen the mall was the primary location where teens networked, but due to changing social norms, parenting, and outright fear-mongering kids today don’t have the same level of freedom as she once did. On the most basic level, kids are really not that different than they were 20, 40 or even 60 years ago. They crave a space where they can carve out their identities, test boundaries,  build friendships, and socialize.

However, boyd points out that teens movements today are more restricted than ever before – by parents, legally imposed curfews, and even mall policies. These restrictions, coupled with the availability of online tools, push teens to create news forms of networked publics. She breaks down the issues surrounding this shift into 8 clear chapters, which can be read sequentially or on their own. As I saw it, the crux of her argument is best laid out in her own words:

“…the mere existence of new technology neither creates nor magically solves cultural problems.” (156)

The key here is that teens’ use of the internet should not be demonized or ignored. The internet is no panacea, but it can hardly be seen as the source of all that ails society. Instead, the internet and teens interactions with social media serve as a kind of bellwether, reflecting troubling trends that already exist in society. We, the adults in these teens’ lives, should use their interactions with this technology to create entry points into talking about real-world issues. When we see teens struggling online we should pause and look at the other issues which may have led to this point, rather than taking away their phones or disconnecting the internet.

If you’re intrigued, I highly encourage you to either read the book or listen to boyd discussing this on a podcast (link below). boyd addresses all of these issues in far more detail than I do in this post, but I don’t want to ruin the experience of reading this great book for you, Once you read it, I look forward to hearing what you think about it.


New Books in Sociology covering danah boyd, “It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens”

New Books in Technology Podcast: danah boyd interview

It’s Complicated [full book, pdf]